A surgery is defined as a medical procedure whereby, with the usage of operative manuals and instruments an illness, injuries, deformities, ruptures, etc. are treated. Surgeries are mostly done in cases of acute ailments or injuries. A chronic disease might also call for a surgical exercise but only if things radicalize. Different surgeries have different reasons. Some surgeries are performed to cure an illness, some to fix a wound, some to prevent the spread of infection which may include surgical amputation, biopsies.
The practice of surgery has been recorded far back in history since the time of the Indus Valley Civilization, the Chinese civilization, ancient Greece. In medieval Europe, the barbers were the one who was employed to perform surgeries under the guidance and direction of the doctors. In fact, the organization of the United Company of Barber Surgeons in London is considered to be the precursor of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.
In ancient Egypt, a more than five-thousand-year-old mandible has been found which show signs of perforation below the roots of the first molar indicating the removal of an abscessed tooth. During that time sutures were used to close wounds and honey was used to treat an infection. Ancient India shows records of the famous surgeon Susruta and his treatise of surgical knowledge called Susruta Samhita.
In ancient Greece, there were temples dedicated to the healer-god Asclepius and these temples served as centers of medical advice, prognosis, etc. There are still records in several Asclepiea where one may find records that talks of an opening of abscesses, removal of alien materials in the body.
Surgery received a sound-footing during the age of Enlightenment. The science of surgery was encouraged in the medical profession and a major figure in this was John Hunter. He encouraged an empirical and experimental study of the procedure and desisted from relying on previous testimonies. He greatly advanced the knowledge of venereal diseases and introduced new techniques of treatment of the Achilles tendon and treatment of aneurysms in the arteries through ligatures. He realized the danger of infection. He maintained surgery to be the last resort in medical treatment.
In the mid-1800s, the engendering of knowledge of anatomy and inclusion of it in medical science had rendered capable the performing of surgical procedures like removal of kidney stones, amputation of limbs, removing of tumors. Gradually, this way, surgery was incorporated into the medical curriculum. However, previously when there was not the luxury of localized or complete anesthesia, these procedures were conducted by putting the patient under intoxication, either the influence of opium or alcohol. Until the introduction of ether anesthesia, the process of surgery had to face a lot of limitation in terms of inclusion within the field of medical treatment. Along with that, it was the knowledge of the role that bacteria played in spreading infection, as laid out by Pasteur and applying that knowledge in the treatment of wounds that modern surgery comes into existence.
With the progression of time, the process of surgery has also developed and advanced. The daily progress that is being made in science and technology has benefitted the medical field as well. Several minute surgeries can be done nowadays by fitting cameras inside the body; surgeries through smallest of the smallest incisions. Lasers are in wide implementation to burn tumors, skin treatment, fix retinal wear and tear, coagulate blood vessels all of which was unthinkable even fifty years ago.