Surgeries can be categorized into four major groups:

Wound Surgery: This category includes all kinds of wounds or injuries from accidents like cuts and scratches. The aim of this surgical procedure is to prevent the spread of infection and treatment of the wound.

Extirpative surgery: It is to remove something entirely from your body so that it does not have the slightest chances of growing or emanating from anywhere. To extirpate is to pull up by the roots. Under this category fall procedures like mastectomy, which is the surgical removal of the breast ( done to prevent the spread of breast cancer) hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) and so on.

Reconstructive surgery: As is suggestible from the name, a reconstructive surgery is meant to repair or reconstruct a damaged portion or tissue of the body. This procedure is carried out in order to attend to burn injuries. Skin grafting is a good example of this procedure. It is a process where the wounded part of the body is treated by grafting skin taken from a fleshier part of the body like the thighs or the buttocks. A good example of this procedure is plastic surgery. 

Transplantation surgery:  In these types of surgeries artificial devices (prostheses) are used to replace damaged or diseased organs or tissues. The use of metal prostheses for the reconstruction of hip joints; the use of plastic valves to replace those in the chambers of the heart, etc. all these are examples of this category of surgery. Transplantation surgery also involves the use of organs transplanted from other people to replace diseased or dysfunctional organs in patients. Kidneys and eyes being the most commonly transplanted organs.

Neural surgery:  That field of medical treatment that caters to the treatment and diagnosis for the alleviation of neural problems in the spinal cord, peripheral nerves and the cerebrovascular area of the extracranial region is termed Neurosurgery or neurological surgery. It is also, sometimes, colloquially called as brain surgery. This is, however, not to be confused with neuropathology which comprises of diseases affecting the central and peripheral nervous system like Alzheimer, dementia, epilepsy, Parkinson’s Disease, tumors, neural infections, multiple sclerosis.

A pinched nerve is a form of ailment in the spinal column that is caused when a bone protrudes into the nerves of the vertebral column. This, in turn, results in a constriction that hinders the flow of spinal fluid and other essential materials through the column. A pinched nerve can cause severe back pains, much common among aged people. This condition is treated by the surgical process of decompression which is the removal of the interfering piece of bone from the nerve root, which is called the lamina, to alleviate the pain.

The decompression procedures are of 3 types:

  • Laminotomy: Involves removing a portion of the neural to make space that was taken by the impinging bone.
  • Disectomy: This surgical procedure involves removing a part of the disc that is squeezing the nerve. A discectomy can be performed with a laminotomy although that is up to the doctor.
  • Laminectomy: In this procedure, the whole of the lamina is removed to free up space in the neutral column.
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